Hate Crime Essay - Words | Cram

 

hate crime essays

Jun 20,  · View and download hate crime essays examples. Also discover topics, titles, outlines, thesis statements, and conclusions for your hate crime essay. Explain. The original hate crime law protected people of different race, color, religion, sex or national origin. This act expands current hate crimes law to include violence based on gender, sexual orientation, gender identity or disability How are hate crime laws justified in terms of the theories of deterrence, retribution and symbolic messages? Gender based hate crime is the most prevalent, with African Americans being the largest racial group targeted by hate crime. Trends develop in the amount of hate crimes as seen by the recent upswing in hate crimes against Middle Easterners following the September 11, terrorist attacks.


FREE Hate Crimes Essay


This sample Hate Crime Research Paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Like other free research paper examples, it is not a custom research paper. If you need help writing your assignment, please use our custom writing services and buy a paper on any of the criminal justice research paper topics. Although the term hate crime and societal interest in it are relatively recent developments, hate crime has deep historical roots.

Throughout U. Since then, members of all immigrant groups have been subjected to discrimination, harassment, and violence. While hate crime behavior has a long history, it has only been in the last couple of decades that research to understand this type of crime has been conducted. The purpose of this research paper is to present the hate crime knowledge that has accumulated over these last decades.

Proponents of hate crime laws feel strongly about society making a statement that biased or hate crimes will not be tolerated and that serious penalties will be applied to those who commit such crimes.

In addition, these laws are important in order to deter potential hate crime offenders who intentionally target members of subordinate groups. There have also been arguments against the formation of hate crime laws.

Not all believe that hate crimes have been a significant problem in society; rather, some see it as a media-exaggerated issue—a product of a society that is highly sensitive to prejudice and discrimination.

Thus, a special set of criminal laws that include hate is not warranted, and the generic criminal laws will suffice. Those who oppose hate crime essays crime laws also argue that attempting to determine motivation for an already criminal act is difficult and may pose moral problems in that the offender is being punished for a criminal act and for his or her motivation.

It has also been argued that hate crime laws do not deter people from engaging in these crimes, hate crime essays. Others argue that the disagreement over which subordinate groups to include in the hate crime laws actually causes added discrimination and marginalization. Critics state that what these laws effectively are saying is that one group is more worthy of protection and care than another.

Although there has been and still is debate about hate crime laws, the mere fact that they exist in several countries around the world, as well as within the United States, indicates that reasoning in favor of these laws has outweighed that against them. Hate crime laws in the United States exist at the federal and state levels. Although federal and state laws differ, most protected characteristics include race, national origin, ethnicity, and religion.

Some laws also include sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, and disability. The federal hate crime system includes laws, acts, and data collection hate crime essays. There are two federal data collection statutes.

The majority of states have some sort of hate crime legislation, but it differs from state to state. For example, some states treat hate crimes as low-severity offenses, while other states have more general hate crime laws or sentence enhancing for crimes that are motivated by bias.

In some states, hate crime essays, maximum criminal sentences may be doubled, tripled, or increased even more for a hate crime. The states also differ in the subordinate groups that transform a general crime to a hate crime and as to what degree this bias must be shown e. All state statutes include at least race, religion, and ethnicity, but differ on inclusion of other subordinate groups, hate crime essays.

In addition, several anti-hate groups collect data and report rates of hate crime victimization at both the national and regional levels, hate crime essays. It is important to note that each agency collects the data in a different manner and thus, each report varies in terms of rates, types, and focus of hate crime. For example, since the NCVS collects information through anonymous surveys, the rates of hate crime hate crime essays significantly higher than the official police records reported in the UCR.

Also, since state laws differ, what is considered a hate crime in one state may not be considered a hate crime in another state and therefore may not be counted in the UCR. Thus, data reporting sources differ on the number and types of hate crimes reported. Based on the hate crime reports from law enforcement agencies across the United States, the UCR data reflect aggregate frequencies of incidents, victims, suspected offenders, and categories of bias motivation.

Nationally, the number of hate crimes reported has fluctuated between about 6, and 10, incidents annually since U. Department of Justice, FBI, Historically, racial animosity consistently has been the leading motivation for hate crime, followed by religious intolerance, and sexual orientation bias motives.

The majority of hate crime incidents, One percent involved hate crime essays against physical or mental disabilities U. Fifty-eight percent of ethnicity bias incidents were anti-Hispanic. According to data for the 7, known offenders reported inan estimated The race of the offender was unknown for The majority The remaining Department of Justice, initiated the addition of new items to the National Crime Victimization Survey that are designed to uncover hate crime victimizations that go underreported to the police.

Crimes reported to the NCVS—sexual assaults, robbery, hate crime essays, assault, burglary, larceny, or vandalism—with evidence of hatred toward any of these specific groups are classified as crimes motivated by hate.

However, NCVS does not include crimes covered by the UCR, such as murder, arson, commercial crimes, and crimes against children under the age of In addition, hate crime essays, the NCVS does not include reports of crime from institutions, organizations, churches, schools, hate crime essays, and businesses, although persons involved in these entities are included. The data for hate crimes from the NCVS include information about victims, offenders, and characteristics of crimes—both crimes reported to police and those not reported U.

Department of Justice, BJS, According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics special report on victims derived from the NCVS from July through Decemberan annual average ofhate crime victimizations occurred. During that period, an average ofhate crime essays, hate crime incidents involving one or more victims occurred annually in the United States. That is, NCVS hate crime essays indicate that the majority of hate crime victims, like victims of many other hate crime essays, do not report the incident to law enforcement.

It is important to note that although several explanations may be applicable to prejudice and hate crime occurrence, no existing criminological theory can fully account for the transformation from prejudice into criminal behavior.

Experts argue that in order to explain hate hate crime essays, consideration of the interplay of a number of different factors social, psychological, hate crime essays, criminogenic, and contextual as well as a wide range of aspects that contribute to hate crime i. The criminological theories most often employed to explain hate crime are group conflict theory, social learning theory, and strain theory.

In-group versus out-group conflict strongly facilitates group cohesiveness, affiliation, and identity. Out-groups are often stereotyped, dehumanized, or perceived as dishonest or malicious, whereas the in-group is idealized as hate crime essays, powerful, and wholly justified in its views and actions toward others. Previous research has consistently shown that organized in-group preferences and out-group prejudices, and sometimes hostilities, even when the out-group was one with whom in-group members had never met, had never interacted, and about whom they knew very little.

Social learning theories suggest that attitudes, values, and beliefs about individuals who belong to specific groups are learned through interaction with hate crime essays figures, such as peers and family who reward for adopting their views.

Strain theory holds that crime is a product of the gap between hate crime essays culturally emphasized goals e. While society by its very nature pressures everyone to achieve those valued goals, not everyone is able to legitimately achieve success because of unemployment, poor education, lack of skills, and so on.

Research examining hate crime perpetrators has indicated the most common characteristic profile, situational factors associated with hate crime, an emerging typology, and knowledge of organized hate group members. In fact, studies indicate that the most common profile of a hate crime perpetrator is that of a young, white male, who perpetrates with a small group of individuals, has had little previous contact with the criminal justice system, and is not a member of an organized hate group.

Although examining overall data on hate crime perpetrators to form a broad picture of the offender may be important, it is cautioned that not all hate crime essays perpetrators fit this profile. For example, a percentage of hate crime perpetrators do belong to organized hate groups, are non-white, and range in age from teenage to hate crime essays adult.

There are situational factors that seem to influence and interact with the human factors that affect the occurrence hate crime essays the brutality of hate crime. These situational factors include that a the crime is often conducted in small groups, b the victim is most often a stranger, and c the crime is expressive verbal harassment rather than instrumental physical aggression.

As previously mentioned, hate crimes are usually not committed by lone offenders, or by members of organized hate groups, but by small groups of young friends. This, hate crime essays, coupled with the fact that most hate crime offenders do not have a history of hate crime perpetration, indicates that offender motivation for hate crime may have more to do with group dynamics than individual levels of bias or prejudice. Previous research on group and authority influence has unequivocally indicated its strong persuasive power.

This strong influence stems from a few important dynamics. First, engaging in a group assault allows diffusion of responsibility. Two other factors that affect the brutality of hate crime are stranger victims and the motivation of offenders. Research indicates that it is much easier to dehumanize or hate a person who is not known personally.

Thus, since hate crime perpetrators most often offend against strangers, this increases the likelihood that the victim will be dehumanized and hurt significantly more.

In addition, hate crime essays, since the motivation of the offenders is typically not instrumental e. Offenses that are instrumental have a stopping point—the assault ends when the victim hands over his or her purse or wallet.

Since hate crimes are hate crime essays, there is no end point—making higher levels of brutality more likely. In recent years, researchers have begun to examine possible types of hate crime offenders. The most common type of hate crime offender is the thrill type. As stated previously, these hate crime essays usually young males who act in groups.

They do not belong to organized hate groups and describe their offense motivation as being bored or looking for some hate crime essays. Studies indicate that this type of hate crime offender accounts for approximately two thirds of hate crimes, hate crime essays. The second type is the reactive or defensive type. This offender type commits a hate crime because the person feels that his or her rights or territory has been invaded.

The third type of hate crime perpetrator is the mission type. The Southern Poverty Law Center indicates that there are approximately different hate groups in the United States, hate crime essays. Most organized hate crime groups focus on one or more of the following: racial bias e. In other words, racism may not cause someone to join a hate group, but joining the hate group may cause racism.

While trends and patterns can be identified, it is impossible to know exactly what percentage of hate crimes get reported to police. In general, many victims of hate crimes do not report the crime. In addition, once a hate crime is reported, there remain problems in recording, processing, hate crime essays, and accurately accounting for all hate crime.

There are a variety of reasons why victims of hate crimes may not report the offense to the police. Nonreporting of hate crimes is primarily a consequence of lack of trust of the police, fear of discrimination, abuse and mistreatment by law enforcement, or belief that the police are not interested in investigating such crimes. Members of certain groups that are frequently targeted for hate crimes are particularly unlikely to report a hate crime because they have poor relations with the police, hate crime essays.

This situation is reflected in the huge differences in figures that are consistently hate crime essays between official police records of hate incidents against blacks or homosexuals and national and local victim surveys.

In addition, what is and is not classified as a hate crime varies greatly across different states. The way that hate crime is defined by different jurisdictions greatly affects what, and how much, is recorded in hate crime essays official figures.

 

Hate Crime Research Paper - EssayEmpire

 

hate crime essays

 

Explain. The original hate crime law protected people of different race, color, religion, sex or national origin. This act expands current hate crimes law to include violence based on gender, sexual orientation, gender identity or disability How are hate crime laws justified in terms of the theories of deterrence, retribution and symbolic messages? Hate Crimes Essay Words | 6 Pages. Crimes I. Intro-What is a hate crime. A hate crime is when a person intentionally selects a victim because of the race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, gender or sexual orientation. Essay Black Crime And Hate Crime. people are so racist then why do many blacks think that a person of color is more racist, and finally if someone does something wrong they should have to pay the consequences no matter what race they are, no more calling every white on black crime a hate crime.